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1
Tibetan language
for beginners
March 18, 2003 Version 2.1
Silvia Vernetto
with the collaboration of
Tenzin Norbu
2
Contents
Introduction
Part I - Grammar
Sentence structure
Nouns
Articles
Personal pronouns
Genitive and dative cases
Possessive adjectives and pronouns
Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
Qualifying adjectives
Interrogative pronouns
Postpositions
Verbs - To be
Verbs - To have
Verbs conjugation
Verbs - Infinitive
Verbs - Present tense
Verbs - Future tense
Verbs - Past tense
Verbs - Negative form
Verbs - Interrogative form
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
3
Questions and answers
Imperative
Verbs - Termination table
Want - need - can - like
Special structures
Numbers
Indefinite adjective and pronouns
Conjunctions
Part II - Little phrasebook
Greetings - Making friends
In town and outskirts
Visiting a monastery
At the Barkor market
At the restaurant
At the hotel
Trekking
Weather
Time
Health
Common adjectives
Common verbs
Tibetan alphabet
Bibliography
31
32
33
35
37
39
40
40
41
46
50
53
55
58
59
60
61
63
65
67
70
72
...continue
4
Introduction
These pages are intended to provide the basic rules to build simple
sentences in Tibetan, suitable to have small conversations or ask
information.
The first part contains simple grammar rules and many examples on how
to use them.
The second part is a collection of words and phrases useful on different
occasions (visiting towns and monasteries, trekking on mountains, eating
at the restaurant, etc), where you can find some applications of the rules
presented in the first part.
Hurried and lazy people can skip directly to the second part, using
sentences without knowing nothing about their structure, but it will be
much less amusing...!
Pronunciation rules
Tibetan words have been transcribed using the Latin alphabet, trying to
reproduce the original pronunciation. However the readers must take in
mind that some Tibetan sounds have not a precise correspondence in
western languages. For instance you can hear a sound that is not really k
nor g but stays somewhere in the middle between them; the same happens
for p and b, or for d and t.
At the end of this grammar you can see the Tibetan alphabet, consisting
of 29 consonants and 5 vowels. For our western ears it can be difficult to
perceive the difference between k and k', between ts and ts', or between
ch and ch'. Sounds that for us are quite similar, for Tibetans are very
different. In any case, don't get discouraged...Tibetan people can
understand you even if you don't use the exact pronunciation and often,
with a smile or a warm laugh, they will repeat what you have awkwardly
tried to say, giving you the possibility to listen the correct way to
pronounce it...
5
The Tibetan language is spoken in a very wide region, extending for
thousands of kilometers. The written language doesn't change, but the
pronunciation can vary a lot going from the western part of Tibet to the
extreme eastern regions or to the Himalayan lands. In this grammar we will
refer to the pronunciation used in Lhasa.
In general you can read the Tibetan sentences of this book as in English, but
remember that:
a is like in father
e is like in let
i is like in sing
o is like in low
ö is like the French eu in jeu
u is like in moon
ü is like the French u
ny is like the Spanish ñ in niño
g is like in goat
j is like in jam
r is rolled, don't read it like the Italian nor the French r's.
ng is like in sing, but the g is almost silent (the very common word nga,
that means I, is pronounced as something between nga and na).
k,g at the end of a word are almost silent (yag, the popular animal yak, and
chig, the number one, are pronounced almost ya and chi)
h h after a consonant (except after c) means a breathy consonant. Don't
read ph as in photo and don't read th as in three or as in this. Pronounce thr
and dhr like in tree and drum.
In this book all the words are divided in syllables to make easier the learning.
In a word the accent generally falls on the last syllable...but not always: at the
restaurant remember to ask for momò (typical dumplings) and not for mòmo
(grandmother)...
Good luck ! ... or better, Tashi deleg !
.
...continue
6
Sentence structure
In Tibetan language the structure of the sentence is:
subject + object + verb
The verb is always at the end.
Example:
I am Pema = nga Pe-ma yin
I - Pema - am
this is a book = di teb re
this - book - is
Tenzin is in Tibet = Ten-zin Pö la du
Tenzin - Tibet - in - is
Part I
Grammar
7
Nouns
In Tibetan language nouns can be monosyllabic or
polysyllabic. Most of them are disyllabic.
Example:
monosyllabic disyllabic
earth = sa mother = a-ma
mountain = ri monastery = gom-pa
people = mi lama = la-ma
water = chu house = khang-pa
tea =cha good = yag-po
Most of polysyllabic nouns end with the particles: -pa, -po,
-ba, -bo, -ma, -mo.
In some cases, by adding the particle -pa to a word, a new
term is created, denoting a man who is in some way
connected to the item.
Example:
horse = ta horseman = ta-pa
Tibet = Pö man of Tibet = Pö-pa
8
Number and gender
To make a noun plural you can add the particle -tso.
Example:
book = teb books = teb-tso
person = mi persons = mi-tso
In many cases the terminations -po and -mo define the
gender.
Example: king = gyel-po queen = gyel-mo
Some nouns have a single form for masculine and feminine.
Example: children (male and female) = pu-gu
In some case different words specifies different gender.
Example: male yak = yag female yak = dhri
...continue
...continue
...continue
9
Articles
In Tibetan the definite and indefinite articles do not exist.
Instead of the indefinite articles a and an you can use the
word for the number one, chig, following the noun.
Example:
a boy = bu chig (pronounce chig almost as chi),
a girl = bu-mo chig
Instead of the definite article the you can use, if necessary, the
demonstrative adjectives this/that and these/those, always
following the noun.
this = di that = de
these = din-tso those = den-tso
Example:
the book (if it is near) = teb di
the books (if it is far) = teb den-tso
Note: demonstrative adjectives will be more extensively
discussed at pg.13.
10
Personal pronouns
In practice for he and she you can always use khong, even
if it is an honorific term, to be used talking of important
people (for example lamas or professors).
I nga
you khye-rang
he/ she khong (honorific)
he kho / kho-rang
she mo / mo-rang
we ngan-tso
you khe-rang-tso
they khong-tso
11
Genitive and dative cases
To form the genitive case (ex.: the book of Tenzin) one must
insert the particle gi between the owner and the owned:
owner + gi + owned
Example:
the house of the lama = la-ma gi khang-pa
lama - of - house
the price of the tea = cha gi kong
tea - of - price
To form the dative case (ex.: I gave it to you) one has to put
the particle la after the noun or the personal pronoun that
receives the action.
to = la
Example:
to the lama = la-ma la
to me = nga la
Pronounce these sentences with the accent on the particle la.
12
Possessive adjectives and pronouns
To form possessive adjectives and pronouns simply add the
genitive particle -gi to the personal pronouns ( in practice
"your" is traduced as "of you", etc.) except "nga-gi" that
becomes "nge" (pronounce nge like ñe with a long e) .
For plural persons you can also change the termination tso in
tsö.
my - mine nge
your - yours khye-rang-gi
his/her-hers/its khong-gi
our - ours ngan-tso-gi / ngan-tsö
your - yours khe-rang-tso-gi / khe-rang-tsö
their - theirs khong-tso-gi / khong-tsö
Possessive adjectives must be placed before the noun.
Example:
my friend = nge dhrog-po
this is yours = di khye-rang-gi re
13
Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns
Demonstrative adjectives must be placed after the noun.
Example:
this house = khang-pa di
house - this
this is my house = di nge khang-pa re
this - my - house - is
that is your friend = de khye-rang-gi dhrog-pa re
that - your - friend - is
this = di
that = de / pha-gi
these = din-tso
those = den-tso / phan-tso / pha-gi-tso
14
Qualifying adjectives
In Tibetan qualifying adjectives are always placed after the
nouns and do not change with the gender.
The particle -tso to make plural or demonstratives used as
articles are placed after the adjectives.
Example:
good person = mi yag-po
good persons = mi yag-po-tso
these good persons = mi yag-po din-tso
Some common adjectives
big = chen-po small = chun chun
hot = tsa-po cold = dhrang-mo
good = yag-po bad = dug-cha
long = ring-po short = tung tung
old = nyim-pa new = sar-pa
To say very + adjective you can use:
adjective + shi-tha or pe + adjective
Es.: very hot = tsa-po shi-tha or pe tsa-po
.
15
To say extremely + adjective add the particle -shö to the
adjective root.
Example: extremely hot = tsa-shö
To say too + adjective add the particle -tak to the adjective
root.
Example: too hot = tsa-tak
To ask how + adjective ? add the particle -lö to the
adjective root .
Example: how long is it ? = ring-lö re ?
Comparatives
To say more + adjective one adds the particles -ua to the
adjective root. If the root ends with g or r instead of -ua you
must use -ga or -ra. Sometimes the root is slightly modified.
Example:
big = chen-po bigger = che-ua
good = yag-po better = yag-ga
To make a comparison the particle le (pronounced with a long
e) is used in the following way:
Ex: my horse is bigger than yours =
nge ta, khye-rang-gi ta le, che-ua du
my - horse - your - horse - than - bigger - is
. .
...continue
16
Interrogative pronouns
Example:
what is it ? = ka-re re ?
what is there ? = ka-re du ?
which is your house ? = ke-rang-gi khang-pa ka-gi re?
what time is it ? = chu-tsö ka-tsö re ?
hour - how much - is ?
how much is the price ? = kong ka-tsö re ?
price - how much - is ?
what ? = ka-re which ? = ka-gi
where ? = ka-bar from where ? = ka-ne
how ? = kan-dhre in which way ? = kan-dhre-si
how much ? = ka-tsö when ? = ka-dü
who ? = sü why ? = ka-re se-na
17
Post-positions
Post-positions correspond to English prepositions, but always
follow the noun they address (often between the noun and the
postposition the particle gi is inserted):
in, at, to, for, towards = la from = ne
on = gang-la under = uog-la
in, inside = la / nang-la outside = chi-log-la
near = thri-la far from = gyang-la
in front of = dün-la behind = gyab-la
before = ngon-la after = je-la
in middle = kyil-la with = nyam-du
about = kor-la
Example:
in Tibet = Pö la with me = nga nyam-du
on the table = chog-tse gi gang-la
near you = khye-rang gi thri-la
I come from Italy = nga Ithaly ne yin
I talk about this = nga di kor-la lap-gi-yö
18
Verbs - To be
Example:
I am Tashi = nga Ta-shi yin
I - Tashi - am
this is mine = di nge re
this - mine - is
I am = nga yin
you are = khye-rang re
he is = khong re
In Tibetan language the verb to be has two different forms:
a) to express identity (ex: I am Tashi)
b) to express location (ex.: I am in Tibet).
The verb to be doesn't change with the number. This means
that the conjugation of plural persons (we, you, they) is equal
to the conjugation of singular ones (I, you, he/she/it).
To be also doesn't change tense. Tenses must be deduced by
the general context of the sentence.
a) Identity
19
How to choose between du and yo-re ?
Du (pronounced almost like dug) is used when the speaker has
personally experienced what he is talking about, while yo-re
(pronounced with the accent on re) is used if he only knows
the subject from other sources.
Example:
I am in Tibet = nga Pö la yö
I - Tibet - in - am
If I have seen yaks in Tibet I can say:
in Tibet there are yaks = Pö la yag du
If I have only read on books that yaks live in Tibet I say:
in Tibet there are yaks = Pö la yag yo-re
I am = nga yö
you are = khye-rang du / yo-re
he is = khong du / yo-re
b) Location, existence
To express existence in a place :
. .
...continue
...continue
...continue
20
To be - negative form
Example:
he is not Tenzin = khong Ten-zin ma-re
he - Tenzin - is not
I am not in Lhasa = nga Lha-sa la me
I - Lhasa - in - am not
here there are no yaks = de yag min-du
here - yaks - there are not
Note that ma-re and min-du have to be pronounced
with the accent on the last syllable.
yin ® min yö ® me
re ® ma-re du ® min-du
The negative form of to be is obtained modifying the
conjugation as follows:
21
To be - interrogative form
Ex: is there a monastery ? = gom-pa chig yo-re-pe ?
monastery - a - is there
Furthermore the 1st and the 2nd persons are swapped, that is
to say that in a question the verb is conjugated as expected in
the answer (ex.: are you ? becomes am you ?).
Ex.: are you Tashi ? = khye-rang Ta-shi yin-pe ?
you - Tashi - are (am)
If in the sentence there is an interrogative pronoun (what,
who, where, when...) the verb doesn't change.
Ex.: where is the market ? = throm ka-ba yo-re ?
market - where - is
Note that the accent of verbs in interrogative form falls
always on pe and ge, that must be pronounced with a long
and open e.
yin ® yin-pe yö ® yö-pe
re ® re-pe du ® du-ge
The interrogative form of to be is obtained adding the
terminations pe or ge, as shown in the panel.
22
To be - Summary
To be (identity)
Affirm. Neg. Inter. Inter.-neg.
nga yin min re-pe ma-re-pe
khye-rang re ma-re yin-pe min-pe
khong re ma-re re-pe ma-re-pe
To be (location)
Affirm. Neg. Inter. Inter.-neg.
nga yö me yo-re-pe yo-ma-re-pe
khye-rang du min-du yö-pe me-pe
yo-re yo-ma-re yo-ma-re-pe
khong du min-du du-ge min-du-ge
yo-re yo-ma-re yo-re-pe yo-ma-re-pe
23
Verbs - To have
The choice between du or yo-re follows the same rules
seen for to be.
Example:
I have a house = nga la khang-pa yö
I - house - have
he has no yaks = khong la yag min-du
he - yaks - has not
have you a car ? = khye-rang la mo-tha yö-pé ?
you - car - have
In Tibetan the verb to have doesn't exist.
To express the idea of possession you can use the verb to be
in its location form, putting the particle la after the subject.
In practice "he has..." is traduced as "by him there is...."
I have = nga la yö
you are = khye-rang la du / yo-re
he has = khong la du / yo-re
24
Verbs conjugation
The verb conjugation is one of the most delicate parts of the
Tibetan grammar.
To conjugate verbs one must add a suitable termination to
the verb root, that depends on the person and the tense.
The terminations are formed by particle as gi or pa,
followed by auxiliary verbs (the two forms of to be).
The terminations do not change with the number (for
example the 3rd singular person he and the 3rd plural person
them have the same termination).
The termination also changes if the verbs is active or
passive.
Active verbs define an action "actively" performed (as to
go, eat, read...). Passive verbs refers to actions or sensations
that the subject doesn't have control over (as to be hungry,
to feel, to fall asleep...).
With some active verbs, the particle gi has to be insert after
the subject.
25
Verbs - Infinitive
Verbs are formed by a root (fixed) and a termination (that
changes according to the person and the tense).
The termination of the infinitive is -ua or -pa depending
on the verb.
Example:
Active verbs
to go dhro-ua to come yong-ua
to make je-pa to meet thuk-pa
to eat sa-ua to drink thung-ua
to read log-pa to write dhri-ua
to see ta-ua to buy nyo-ua
to give te-ua to stay de-pa
Passive verbs
to be hungry dro-go to-pa to be thirsty kha-kom-pa
to remember dhen-pa to fall ill na-ua
26
Exemple:
active verbs:
I go home = nga nang la dhro-gi-yö
I - home - go
he eats yak meat= khong yak-sha sa-gi-du
he - yak meat - eats
passive verbs:
I am hungry = nga dhro-go-to-gi-du
they are thirsty = khong-tso kha-kom-gi-du
Verbs - Present tense
Active verbs Passive verbs
1stperson +gi-yö +gi-du
2nd and 3rd person +gi-du +gi-du
To conjugate the present tense add the following
terminations to the verb root:
27
Example:
I will go to Lhasa = nga Lha-sa la dhro-gi-yin
I - Lhasa - to - will go
you will drink tea = khye-rang cha thung-gi-re
you - tea - will drink
we will stay at home = nga-tso nang la de-gi-yin
we - home - at - will stay
we will meet at the market =
= ngan-tso throm la thuk-gi-yin
we - market- at -will meet
Verbs - Future tense
Active verbs Passive verbs
1stperson +gi-yin +gi-re
2nd and 3rd persons +gi-re +gi-re
Terminations to add to the verb root:
28
Example:
you drank water = khye-rang chu thung-pa-re
you - water - drank
I understood = nga ha-ko-song
I forgot = je-song I heard = ko-song
Note: some irregular verbs change the root in the past, ex:
to go dhro ® chin
to come yong ® lep
to eat sa ® se
Ex.: I went to the restaurant = nga sa-khang la chin-pa-yin
I - restaurant - to - went
Verbs - Past tense
Active verbs Passive verbs
1stperson +pa-yin +song
2nd and 3rd persons +pa-re +song
Terminations to add to the verb root:
29
Verbs - Negative form
Example:
I don't go to the restaurant = nga sa-khang la dhro-gi-me
I - restaurant - to - don't go
he doesn't go to Lhasa = khong Lha-sa la dhro-gi-min-du
he - Lhasa - to - doesn't go
he will not eat meat = khong sha sa-gi-ma-re
he - meat - will not eat
I have not understood = ha-ko-ma-song
yin ® min yö ® me
re ® ma-re du ® min-du
song ® ma-song
The negative form is obtained by modifying the terminations
in the following way:
30
Verb - Interrogative form
Furthermore, as for the verb to be, the 1st and the 2nd persons
are swapped, that is to say that in a question the verb is
conjugated as expected in the answer.
Note that the termination gi-yin-pe can be shortened as ge,
while pa-yin-pe is shortened as pe.
Example:
do you go to Lhasa ? = khye-rang Lha-sa la dhro-gi-yö-pe?
you - Lhasa - to - go
did you understand ? = ha-ko-song-ge ?
will you go ? = khye-rang dhro-gi-yin-pe (short. dhro-ge )?
did you go ? = khye-rang chin-pa-yin-pe (short. chin-pe )?
Remember, the accent of the verb falls always on pe and ge.
yin ® yin-pe yö ® yö-pe
re ® re-pe du ® du-ge
song ® song-nge
In order to obtain the interrogative form you must modify
the terminations as follows:
31
Questions and answers
We have seen that in a question the 1st and the 2nd persons
are swapped, that is to say that the verb is conjugated as
expected in the answer.
To answer, if the answer is simply yes or no, you have to use
the courtesy particle la, followed by the auxiliary verb used in
the question, in its affirmative or negative form.
Example:
question: are you Tibetan ? = khye-rang pö-pa yin-pe ?
answer: yes = la-yin no = la-min
question: do you eat meat ? = khye-rang sha sa-gi-yö-pe ?
answer: yes = la-yö no = la-me
question: is this a monastery ? = di gom-pa re-pe ?
answer: yes = la-re no = la-ma-re
question: is there a market ? = throm chig yo-re-pe ?
answer: yes = la-yo-re no = la yo-ma-re
If you don't know the answer: maybe = chig che-na
probably yes = yin-pa-dhra
probably not = me-pa-dhra
32
The ordinary form uses the termination -ah added to the
verb root. For a more polite form add the termination -nang
or rog-nang to the verb root (the g of rog is almost silent).
For an exhortation use the termination -scig.
For a strong command or in an informal situation you can
simply drop the termination from the verb root.
For the negative form put the particle ma before the verb
root.
Example:
come ! = sho-ah
please, read = log-rog-nang (the accent is on rog)
come on, read ! = log-scig
give me ! = te
look ! = ta
come here ! = de sho
go away ! = gyu
don't do that ! = ma-che
Imperative
33
gi-min-du-ge gi-du-ge gi-min-du gi-du khong
gi-me-pe gi-yö-pe gi-min-du gi-du khyerang
gi-min-du-ge gi-du-ge gi-me gi-yö nga
gi-ma-re-pe gi-re-pe ghi-ma-re gi-re khong
gi-min-pe gi-yin-pe / ge ghi-ma-re gi-re khyerang
gi-ma-re-pe gi-re-pe min gi-yin nga
pa-re-pe pa-ma-re pa-re khong
pa-yin-pe / pe pa-ma-re pa-re khyerang
pa-re-pe pa-min pa-yin nga
Affirm. Neg. Inter. Inter.-neg.
Present
Future
Past
Verbs - Terminations table
Active verbs
34
gi-min-du-ge gi-du-ge gi-min-du gi-du khong
gi-min-du-ge gi-du-ge gi-min-du gi-du khyerang
gi-min-du-ge gi-du-ge gi-min-du gi-du nga
gi-ma-re-pe gi-re-pe gi-ma-re gi-re khong
gi-ma-re-pe gi-re-pe gi-ma-re gi-re khyerang
gi-ma-re-pe gi-re-pe gi-ma-re gi-re nga
ma-song-nge song-nge ma-song song khong
ma-song-nge song-nge ma-song song khyerang
ma-song-nge song-nge ma-song song nga
Affirm. Neg. Inter. Inter.-neg.
Present
Future
Past
Passive verbs
.. .
...continue
...continue
...continue
35
To want, need, must, can, etc
To traduce to want, to need something, you must use the verb
go in the following way:
Ex.: I want some tea = nga la cha go
I don't want Tibetan tea = nga la Pö cha ma-go
do you want some tea ? = khye-rang la cha go-pe ?
answer: yes =go no = ma-go
what do you want ? = ka-re go ?
To traduce to need, must + verb, you have to use the present
tense form of the verb and substitute the particle gi of the
termination with the particle go.
Ex.: I have to go to the market = nga throm la dhro-go-yö
you must go = khye-rang dhro-go-re
To traduce to want + verb you must use the present tense of
the verb and substitute dö to ghi. Furthermore you must add a
-n to the verb root.
Ex.: I want to go to Lhasa = nga Lha-sa la dhron-dö-yö
I don't want to eat = nga san-dö-me
36
...continue
To traduce can, to be able, use the form verb + tub +
termination:
Ex.: I can go to Lhasa =
= nga Lha-sa la dhro-tub-gi-yö
To traduce to have intention of...you must use tsi in the
following way:
Ex.: I intend to buy this = nga di nyo-tsi-yö
To traduce to be allowed you must use the verb cho:
Ex.: Am I allowed to go there ? =
= nga pa-ghi dhro cho-gi-re-pe ?
answer: yes = cho-ghi-re no = cho-ghi-ma-re
To like
To traduce to like...use the expression ga-bo in this way:
Es.: I like tea = nga cha la ga-bo yö
I don't like tea= nga cha la ga-bo me
do you like tea ? = khye-rang cha la ga-bo yö-pe ?
I like tea very much = nga cha la ga-bo shi-tha yö
37
Special structures
A sentence made of two parts connected by the conjunction if,
like:
if [subordinate sentence], [main sentence]
is traduced in the following way:
[subordinate sentence] na, [main sentence]
Ex: if he comes, I will go =
khong yong-gi-du na, nga dhro-gi-yin
he - comes - if, I - will go
Expressions as before + verb, are traduced with the form
ma-verb-kong-la.
Ex.: before he arrives... = khong ma-lep-kong-la...
In expressions with when + verb..., the form verb-dü is
used.
Ex.: when we arrive to Lhasa... =
nga-tso Lha-sa la lep-dü...
38
Expressions with to, in order to + verb are traduced with
the form verb-ga.
Ex.: let's go to eat = ngan-tso sa-ga dhro
Who is doing the action
The termination ken added to the verb root indicates who
or what is doing the action.
Ex.: the car that is going to Lhasa =
= Lha-sa la dro-ken mo-ta
.
...continue
39
Numbers
21 = nyi-shu tsa chik 22 = nyi-shu tsa nyi
30 = sum chu 31 = sum-chu so chig
40 = shi-chu 41 = shi-chu sha chig
50 = nga-chu 51 = nga-chu nga chig
60 = dhrug-chu 61 = dhrug-chu ra chig
70 = dün-chu 71 = dün-chu don chig
80 = gye-chu 81 = gye-chu gya chig
90 = gu-chu 91 = gu-chu go chig
100 = gya 200 = nyi-gya
1000 = chig tong 2000 = nyi-tong
0 = le-ko 5 = nga 10 = chu
1 = chig 6 = dhrug 11 = chu chig
2 = nyi 7 = dün 12 = chu nyi
3 = sum 8 = gye .............
4 = shi 9 = gu 20 = nyi shu
Numbers larger than 20 are formed in a similar way, but
one has to insert a particle between the tens and the units.
This particle (tsa, so, sha ...) changes for every decade,
as shown in the following panel.
After "round" numbers as 20, 30, 100... is common to say
the word tam-ba (Ex.: 50 = nga-chu tam-ba)
number = trang-ka
40
much / many = mang-po
more = mang-ua
too much = mang-tak / mang drag-pa
a little = de-tsi / nyung nuyng / nyung-she
less = nyung-ua
how much / how many ? = mang-lö ?
all = tsang-ma / kang-ga / ka-yang
nothing = ke-e min-du / ga-yang me
few, some = ka-she none = chig-yang
both = nyi-ka half = che-ka
enough = dhrig-pa, dang-pa every = re-re / ka-re yi-ne
other = shen-da
27. Conjunctions...and more
and = tang or = yang-na
but = yin-na / yin-na yang
because = kang yin se-na (accent on na)
also = ye / yang
then = ten-ne / ten-du otherwise = ya-me-na
in this case = di yin-na since=tsang
about = tsam la / tsa almost = pe-che
like, as = nang-shin maybe = chik-che-na
Indefinite adjective and pronouns
41
Greetings - Making friends
Part II
Little phrasebook
People and related words
people = mi
man/ boy / son = bu
father = pha-pa / pha-la
grandfather = po-po / po-la
child= pu-gu
brother = pin-gya bu /cho-la
husband = khyo-ga /cho-la
friend (male)= dhrog-po
age = lo
country = lung-pa
language = ke
Tibet = Pö
China = Gya-nak
India = Gya-gar
English = in-ji
family = mi-tsang
woman/ girl / daughter = bu-mo
mother = a-ma /a-ma-la
grandmother = mo-mo / mo-la
parents = pha-ma
sister = pin-gya bu-mo
wife = kye-men
friend (female) = dhrog-mo
work = le-ka
name = ming / tsen (hon.)
dialect = ke-lug
Tibetan = pö-pa
Chinese = gya-mi / ge-ri
Nepal = Pe-yul
foreigner = chi-gye
42
Greetings and politeness
When you meet someone:
ta-shi de-leg (good luck) (the g of leg is almost silent)
khye-rang ka-bar phe-ge (where are you going ?)
How are you ? = khye-rang ku-su de-po yin-pe ?
( is your body well ?)
I am well = la yin, nga sug-po de-po yin
(yes, my body is well)
Note then the term body ( sug-po) is expressed in the honorific
form ku-su when it refers to the body of your interlocutor.
To say good bye, when you separate :
ka-le-shu (if you are going away, stay peacefully)
ka-le-phe (if you stay, go peacefully)
Note that in these sentences the honorific forms of go (phe)
and stay (shu) are used.
See you later = je yong
See you tomorrow = san-nyi je yong
Goodnight = sim-ja nan-go
Thank you = thu-je-che Excuse me = gong-da
.
...continue
43
It doesn't matter = ke je-gi-ma-re
Ok, it's all right = dhri-gi-re / las-so
Making friends
What's your name ? = khye-rang-gi ming-la ka-re re ?
My name is Pema = nge ming-la Pe-ma re
nga Pema yin
How old are you ? = khye-rang lo ka-tsö yin ?
I am 30 = nga lo 30 yin
Where are you from ? = khye-rang lung-pa ka-ne yin ?
I am from Italy = nga Italy ne yin
What is your job ? = khye-rang-gi le-ka ka-re re ?
I am a farmer = nga shing-pa yin
professor = nga ge-gen yin
scientist = nga tsen-rig-pa yin
artist = nga ri-mo-ken yin
What is your religion ? = khye-rang-gi chö-lug ka-re re ?
I am Buddhist = nga nang-pa yin
Christian = nga ye-shu yin
.
...continue
44
Where do you live ? = khye-rang ka-bar de-gi-yö ?
I live in Lhasa = nga Lha-sa la de-gi-yö
When did you arrive in Tibet ? =
khye-rang Pö la ka-dü yong-pa-yin ?
Two days ago = nyi-ma nyi chin-song
How long will you stay in Tibet ? =
khye-rang Pö la gyün-ring-lö de-ge ?
I will stay 3 months = nga Pö la da-wa sum de-gi-yin
Please, come in = phe rog-nang / ya phe
Please, sit down = shu-rog-nang
Please, have a tea = cha she-ro-nang or cha thung ( informal)
What do you want ? = ka-re go ?
Language problems
Do you speak English ? = in-ji-ke shing-gi-yö-pe ?
I speak a little Tibetan = nga Pö-ke de-tsi shing-gi-yö
Do you understand ? = ha-ko song-nge ?
I understand = ha-ko song
.
...continue
45
I don't understand = ha-ko-ma-song
Please, speak slowly = ka-le la sung-rog-nang
Please, repeat = yang-kyer sung-rog-nang
How do you call this ? = di la ka-re sa ?
What is the name of this ? = di ming-la ka-re re ?
Please, say it in Tibetan = pö-ke la sung-rog-nang
To attract the attention of someone, you must call the
person using a different term depending on his/her age
and gender:
male female
boy bu bu-mo
your age cho-la a-gia-la
older than you pa-la a-ma-la
very old po-la mo-la
. .
...continue
46
In town and outskirts
Buildings, roads etc
town = dhrong-kye village = dhrong-sep
road = lam-ka market = throm
restaurant = sa-khang hotel = dhru-khang / dhrön-khang
shop = tsong-khang bar = chang-khang
bank = ngü-khang post office= dhra-khang
palace = pho-dhrang museum = dhrem-tön khang
office = le-kung school = lap-dhra
hospital = men-khang prison = tsön-khang
house = khang-pa roof = tho-kha
door = go window = gi-kung
stairs = ken-za wall = tsik-pa / kyan
at home = nangla
Transportations
car = mo-tha bicycle = kang-ga-ri
bus = lam-kor bus station= lam-kor kak-sa
taxi = te-ksi driver = mo-tha tong-kyen
motorcycle = pa-pa tractor = to-la-chi
plane = nam-dhru airport = nam-dru thang
boat = dhru train = ri-li
by car = mo-tha la by walking = kom-pa-gyab-ne
47
Directions
place = sa-cha distance = tha
direction = chok straight = shar-gye / kha-thu
right = ye on the right = ye pa / ye cho-la
left = yön on the left = yön pa / yön cho-la
up = ya down = ma
here = de there = pha-ge
from here = di ne from...to... = ... ne ...par-tu
inside = nang-la outside = chi-log-la
behind = gyab-la in front of = tsa la / dün-la
close to= (gi) thri-la far = tha ring-po
between = par-la among = nang-ne
around = gi ta-kor la upstairs = tho-ka
north = chang south = lho
east = shar west = nub
map = sap-thra toward south = lho chok la
Photos, phone, postcards...
photograph = par camera = par-che
ticket = pa-si passport = lang-kyer
letter = yi-gi postcard = dhrag-shog
address = kha-jang envelope = yi-go
pen = nyu-gu pencil = sha-nyu
paper = shu-gu telephone = ka-bar
.
...continue
48
Walking in the town
Where is the monastery ? = gom-pa ka-bar yo-re ?
Is it far ? = tha ring-po yo-re-pe ?
How far is the market ? =
di-ne throm la tha ring-lö yo-re ?
It is not too far = tha ring-po shi-trha yo-ma-re
Go north = chang-chok la gyu
Walking it takes two hours =
kom-ba gyab-na chu-tsö nyi go-gi-re
Where can I hire a bicycle ? =
kang-ga-ri yar-sa ka-bar yo-re ?
Do you hire bicycles ? = kang-ga-ri yar-ye yö-pe ?
How much does it cost for one day ? =
nyi-ma chik la, kong ka-tsö re ?
How much does it cost per hour ? =
chu-tsö re-re la, ka-tsö re ?
.
...continue
49
Travelling
Is this the bus to Lhasa ? =
Lha-sa la dro-ken lam-kor di re -pe ?
What time will we leave ? =
ngan-tso chu-tsö ka-tsö la dhro-ya re ?
How long does the trip takes ? = gyün ring-lö dhro-ya yo-re ?
How far is Lhasa ? = Lha-sa tha ring-lö yo-re ?
From Lhasa to Sera how long does it take ? =
Lha-sa ne Se-ra par-tu, chu-tsö ka-tsö go-gi-re ?
The car is going too fast = mo-tha gyo-tak gi-du
I am afraid = nga shi-gi-du
Pease, go slowly = ka-le ka-le dhro-rog-nang
Stop please = ka-rog-nang
Wait a moment = gu-nang
.
...continue
50
Visiting a monastery
In the monastery and around
monastery = gom-pa nun monastery = a-ni gom-pa
temple = lha-khang assembly hall = tsog-khang
altar = chö-shun statue =ku
stupa = chö-ten lama's throne = la-ma shug-ti
circumambulation = ko-ra prayer mast = dar-chen
cave = dhra-pu rock painting = do la ri-mo
Religious objects
painting = thang-ka mandala = kil-khor
white scarf = kha-ta prayer flag = dar-chog
incense = pö butter lamp = cho-me
vajra = dor-je bell = dhri-bu
drum = nga trumpet = gya-ling / dung-chen
cymbal = bug-che religious book = pe-cha
rosary= thran-ga prayer wheel = ma-ni kor-lo
mani-stone = do-ko ma-ni sacred food = tsog
Rites and prayers
ceremony = se-ra-kom-ba festival = dü-chen
prayer = mu-lam to pray = mu-lam gyap
to prostrate = cha-tse to circumambulate = ko-ra gyab
mantra = ma-ni / ngak to say mantra = ma-ni dang
to meditate = gom gyab divination = mo gyap
religious dance = cham debate = tsö-pa
51
People and deitiess
monk = ku-sho/ dhra-pa nun = a-ni
abbot = khen-po teacher = rim-po-che
hermit = gom-chen pilgrim = ne-kor-ken
god = lha goddess = lha-mo
Buddha = Sang-gye Avalokiteshvara = Chen-re-zi
Maitreya = Cham-pa Tara = Dhrol-ma
Yamantaka = Dor-ge Jig-je Dalai Lama = Ye-shin Nor-bu
protective deity = yi-dam bodhisattva = jang-chu sem-pa
Religion
religion = chö sect = chö-lug
buddhism = nang-pe chö buddhist = nang-pa
christian = ye-shu catholic = ye-shu ke-to-ly
jewish = ju-is atheist = chö khe-mi-len-ken
muslim = kha-che mosque = kha-che lha-kang
life = tse death= chi-ua
karma = le reincarnation = kye-wa nga-chi
Useful sentences
When does Jokang open / close ? =
Jo-kang go ka-dü che-gi-re /gyap-gi-re ?
At what time do you open / close ? =
chü-tso ka-tsö la go che-gi-re / gyap-gi-re ?
.
...continue
52
May I come in ? = nga nang-la yong-na dhri-gi-re-pe ?
May I go there ? = nga pa-ge dhro cho-gi-re-pe ?
May I go upstairs ? = nga tho-ka la dhro cho-gi-re-pe?
May I look at those statues ? =
nga ku pan-tso la ta-na dhri-gi-re-pe ?
May I take a picture ? = par gyap cho-gi-re-pe ?
You can = cho-gi-re You cannot = cho-gi-ma-re
You have to pay = ngü te-go-re
You have not to pay = ngü te-go-ma-re
Of whom is that statue ? = ku pa-gi su re ?
What is the meaning of this painting ? =
ri-mo di gi tön-ta ka-re re ?
Where are the rock paintings ? = do la ri-mo ka-bar yo re ?
How many monks are here ? = ku-sho ka-tsö yo-re ?
When there will be a ceremony ? =
se-ra kom-ba go ka-dü che-gi-re-pe ?
Many buildings have been destroyed =
khang-pa mang-po me-ba sö yo-re
.
...continue
53
At the Barkor market
price = kong money = ngü
coin/yuan = gor-mo thing = cha-lag
bracelet = dro-tung necklace = kye-gyen
pearl = trang-dok precious stone = tha
gold = ser silver = ngü
coral = che-ru turquoise = yu
amber = po-shi "eye stone" = zii
ivory = pe-so mother-pearl = mo-ti
skin = pak-pa bone = ru-ko
wool = pee silk = tu-zi
clothes = tung-lo Tibetan coat = chu-ba
apron =pan-ge foulard = gor-re
knife = thri shell = tung
painting = ri-mo book = teb
true = ngo-ma/ ngo-ne false = zü-ma
(for religious objects see pag. 50)
Useful sentences
I want to buy a necklace = nga ke-gyen chik nyon-dö-yö
Please show me those necklaces =
nga-la ke-gyen pan-tso te-rog-nang
54
Which stones are they ? = tha ka-re re ?
These stones are authentic ? = tha di ngo-ma re-pe ?
Which material is it ? = di gi gyup-cha ka-re re ?
Where can I find some tangka ? =
tang-ka ka-bar ra-gi-re?
This tangka is true or false ? =
tang-ka di ngo-ma re, zü-ma re ?
It seems false = zü-ma nang-shin du (it is like false)
How much for this ? = di kong ka-tsö re ?
How much for all this ? = di tsang-ma ka-tsö re ?
It's expensive = kong chen-pore (the price is large)
It's too expensive= kong che-tak du
Have you something cheaper ? = kong chun-nga yö-pe ?
Have you something better ?= yag-ga yö-pe ?
I give you 100 yuan for all this =
nga cha-lag tsang-ma la gor-mo 100 te-gi-yin
OK = dhri-ghi-re
Like this = di nang-shin
.
...continue
55
food/meal =ka-la breakfast = sho-ghe/sho-cha ka-la
lunch = nyng-ku ka-la dinner =gong-ta ka-la
table = chog-tse chair = kup-kya
plate = ta-ba glass = glas-si
bowl = po-ba / ka-yül bottle = she-tam
chopsticks = kö-tse fork = kang-dra
knife = dri spoon = tu-ma
bill = ngü-tsi
Drinks
water = chu beer = chang
tea = cha butter tea = pö-cha
sweet tea = cha ngar-mo boiled hot water = chu kö-ma
fruit juice = shin-tog ku-ua
Milk and dairy products
milk = o-ma butter = mahr
cheese = chu-ra yogurt = sho
Cereals and first courses
bread = pa-le spaghetti = ghya-du
rice = dre barley = ne
soup = tang (chinese) cake = ten-shi
At the restaurant
56
...continue
Second courses
veal/beef = lang-sha lamb = lug-sha
yak = yag-sha pork = phak-sha
chicken = cha-sha fish = nya-sha
dried meat = sha-kam egg = gon-nga
Tibetan dishes
Tibetan food= Pö-be ka-la
dumplings = mo-mo
vegetarian dumplings = mo-mo sha me-ba
soup with noodles = tuk-pa
soya noodles = ping
toasted barley flour = tsam-pa
Vegetables and fruit
potatoes = sho-go onions = tsong
beans = tre-ma tomatoes = tomato
fruit = shing-do apple = ku-shu
pear = li orange = tsa-lù-ma
Condiments
salt = tsa sugar = che-ma ka-ra
oil = num vinegar = tshu
Cooking styles
boiled = chu-tsö fried = ngö-pa
roast = me-tag ghyab-pa grilled = chag-top nang-la trag-pa
57
Useful sentences
Where is a Tibetan (western) restaurant ? =
Phö-be (In-ji) sa-kang ka-ba yo ré?
I am hungry = nga tro-go tö-ghi-du
I am thirsty = nga ka-kom ghi-du
I have to take breakfast = nga sho-ghe ka-la sa-go-yö
I want Tibetan tea = nga la Pö cha go
Please bring me a soup = nga la tang chik te-ro-nang
Have you some mo-mo ? = mo-mo yö-pé ?
This is good = di shim-po du
cold = di trang-mo du
rotten = di ru-ba du
Please bring me one more = shen-da chik te-ro-nang
Without meat = sha me-ba
This food is too much for me = ka-la di nga la mang-tak du
It's enough, I am full = dhrik song
How much is it ? = ngü ka-tsö ré ?
This restaurant is expensive = sa-kang-di kong chen-po du
. . . .
...continue
58
room = nyi-khang / khang-mi bed = nyi-tri
sheet = nyi-je pillow = nye-go
bathroom = trü-kang shower = sug-po tru-sa
toilette = sang-chö kitchen = tap-tsang
lice = bu key = di-mi
electricity = lok lamp = shu-ma
Useful sentences
Have you a room ? = khang-mi yö-pe ?
Where can I find an empty room ? =
khang-mi tong-pa ka-bar ra-gi-re ?
Can I see the room ? = khang-mi ta cho-gi-re-pe ?
This room is all right = khang-mi di dhri-gi-re
How much for one night ? = tsen chig la ka-tsö re ?
It costs 10 yuan per night =
tsen re re la gor-mo chu te-go-re
I need hot water = nga la chu tsa-po go
When there will be hot water ? =
chu tsa-po chu-tsö ka-tsö la yong-gi-re ?
Accommodation
59
Trekking
earth = sa sky = nam
mountain = ri snow mountain = kang-ri
rock = drag ice, glacier = kyak-pa
valley = rong avalanche = kang-ru
mountain pass = la path = lam
river = tsang-po bridge = sam-pa
stream = chu lake = tso
water fall = pap-chu stone = do
grassland = tsa-tang grass = tsa
mud = tak-pa dust = te-la
forest = shing-nak desert = che-tang
tree = shin-dong wood = shing
field = shin-ka flower = me-to
village = throng-seb tent = gur
farmer = shin-pa herder / nomad = drog-pa
yak dung = cho-ua fire = me
flash light = log-shu backpack = gyap-pa
Animals
animal = sem-chen
dog = kyi cat = shi-mi
cow = ba-mo / pa-chu sheep = lug
yak male = yak yak female = dhri
60
weather = nam-shi
sun = nyi-ma air =lung
moon = da-ua star = kar-ma
rain = char-pa snow = kang pap
hail = se-ra tang lightning = lok
wind = lung / lag-pa fog = mug-pa
cloud = thin-pa storm = lung-char
rainbow = ja thunder = dru-ke
cold = thrang-mo hot = tsa-po
Useful sentences
What's the weather like ? = nam-shi kan-dre du ?
The weather is good = nam-shi yag-po du
The weather is bad = nam-shi duk-cha du
It's cold = thrang-mo du It's hot = tsa-po du
Weather
donkey = pung-gu horse = ta
pig = pak-pa goat = ra
chicken = cha-ti cock / hen = ja-po/ja-mo
here = ri-pong bird = cha
mountain rodent = a-bra mouse = tsi-tsi
insect = bu-sin fish = nya
snake = dhrü
61
time = dü-tsö date = tse-ba
day = nyi-ma week = dün-tha
month = da-ua year = lo
hour / clock = chü-tsö minute = kar-ma
morning = sho-ge noon = nying ku
afternoon = chi-tho night, evening = gong-ta/ tsen
Time adverbs
today = te-ring now = tan-da
tomorrow = san-nyi day after tomorrow = nang-nyi
yesterday = ke-sa day before yesterday = ke-nyi-ma
tonight = to-gong this morning = ta-rang sho-ge
often = yang yang always = ka-dü yin na / tak-ba
once = teng-chik twice = teng-nyi
sometimes = kap kap-la / tsam tsam la
never = ka-dü-ye (+ verb neg.) / nam-yang
every time = teng ré ré everyday = nyin-tar
late = chi-po early = nga-po
before = kong-la after = je-la / shug-la
while = ring-la /kab-la soon = gyok-po
during = tü-la / kap la immediately = lam-sang
again = yang-kyer
Time
62
The days of the week
Monday = sa da-ua Friday = sa pa-sang
Tuesday = sa mi-ma Saturday = sa pem-ba
Wednesday = sa lak-pa Sunday = sa nyi-ma
Thursday = sa pu-bu
Seasons
spring = chi-ka summer = yar-ka
autumn = tön-ka winter = gun-ka
Useful sentences
What time is it ? = chü-tso ka-tsö re ?
It' five o' clock = chü-tso nga-ba re (add ba to the hour)
5:30 = chü-tso nga tang che-ka re
5:10 = chü-tso nga tang kar-ma chu re
20 to 5 = chü-tso nga sim-ba-la kar-ma nyi-shu du
At what time ......? = ..... chü-tso ka-tsö la re ?
At 9 o' clock= chü-tso gu-ba la
About at 9 o' clock= chü-tso gu-ba tsa la
From 4 to 6 o' clock = chü-tso shi-ba ne truk-ba par-tu
Every hour = chü-tso re-re la
. .
...continue
63
Health
doctor = am-ji disease = na-tsa
medicine = men pill = ri-pu
fever = tsa-ua cough = lo
altitude sickness = la-du na nausea = kyu-me lang-ua
headache = go na toothache = so na
cold = cham-ba na stomachache = tro-go na
cut = ma pulse = tsa
hospital = men-khang pharmacy = men-tson-khang
oxygen = sog-zin lung
Parts of the body
head = go eye = mi
mouth = ka teeth = so
nose = na-kug ear = am-jo
throat= mik-ba tongue = che
stomach = tro-go chest = pang-ko
heart = nying back = gyap
hand/arm = lak-ba finger = tzu-gu
foot/leg = kang-ba body = sug-po
blood = trak urine = chin-ba
64
Useful sentences
Is there a doctor who speaks English ? =
in-ji shin-ken am-ji yo-re-pe ?
Please, call a doctor = am-ji ke ta-rog-nang
I don't feel well = nga de-bo min-du
I feel sick = nga na-ghi-du
It hurts here = de na-tsa gya-gi-du
I have a fever = nga la tsa-ua yö
I have a cough = nga lo gyap-gi-du
I have diarrhoea = nga tro-ko she-gi-du
I feel nauseous = nga kyu-me lang-gi-du
I am dizzy = nga go-yu kor-gi-du
Is serious = nyen-ka-chen-po re
Take these pills = ri-pu din-tso sa-nang
Take them twice a day =
nyi-ma chik la teng nyi sa-nang
Take them on a empty stomach = tro-go tong-pa la sa-nang
Take them with food = ka-la nyem-do sa-nang
. .
...continue
65
Common adjectives
alone = chik-po
bad = duk-cha
beautiful (people)
= tse-po (m) / tse-ma (f)
beautiful (thing) = nyin ge-po
big = chen-po
cheap = ke-po
/ kong chun chun
clean = tsang-ma
close, near = thri-la / gyap
cold = trang-mo
delicious = shim-po
different = ka-gak
difficult = kag-po
dirty = tsog-pa
dry = kam-po
easy = le-la-po
empty = tong-pa
expensive = kong chen-po
false = zü-ma
far = ta ring-po
fast = gyok-po
first = tang-po
full = keng-pa
good = yak-po
happy = ki-po
hot = tsa-po
hungry = tro-go to
ill = na
important = ke-chen-po
last = ta-ma / chug-la
long = ring-po
low = ma-po
narrow = tok-po
near = nye-po
new = sar-pa
noisy = ke chen-po
old (thing) = nyim-pa
old (people) = gen-go
open = che / ka-che-ne
other = shen-ta
pleasant = ki-bo
66
Colours
colour = tsö-shi
black = nak-po
blue = ngom-po
green= gyang-gu
orange = ma-se / li-uang
red = mar-po
white = ka-po
yellow = se-po
quiet = ka ka-de
rich = chuk-po
right =ma-nor-ua /dhrig-pa
ripe = mim-pa
sacred = ke-chen-po
sad = kyo-po
short = tung tung
similar = chik-pa
small = chun chun
slow = ka-lé / te-po
strong = shuk chen-po
sure = ten-den
sweet = ngar-mo
tall = tho-po
tired = thang che
true = ngu-ne / ngo-ma
ugly = do nyi-bo
wet = löm-pa
wide = sheng-ga chen-po
young = shön shön/shön-pa
/ lo chun chun
. .
...continue
67
Common verbs
Roots of verbs
arrive =yong
ask = tri / lap
ask a question= ke-cha tri
barter = je
be afraid = je
be born = kyi
be hungry = thro-go-tö
better = yag
be thirsty = ka-kom
boil = khö / chu-tsö
bring = kye
broke = chak
build = so / sö (p)
buy = nyo / nyö (p)
call = ke tang
change = je
change money = ngü sil-ma
choose = dem
circumambulate = ko-ra gyap
climb = za
close = gyap / go gyap
come = yong / lep (p) / sho
cook = ka-la so-ua
count = tsi gyag
drink = tung
do, make = che / sö
drive = mo-ta tang
die = drong / chu / shi
eat = sa/se(p)/she(h)
enter = zuh
fall (thing) = sa
fall (people) = ri
fall ill = na
feel cold= kyag
find = nye
finish = tsar
forget = je
give = te / trö / pül (h)
go= dhro/chin (p)
/ phe(h)
68
go down = pap / mah pap
go out = thön
go up = za
grow = kye
hear = ko / tö
help = rog-pa che
hire = yar / la
kiss = ka-kyel
know = she / shing
know (people) = ngo shing
learn= jang
like = ga
listen = nyen
live = te / sön
look = ta
loose = lah
meditate = gom gyap
meet = tuk
move = tang
need = go
obtain = ra
offer = chö / pül(h)
open = go che
paint = tsön-tang / la-dri
pay = ngü te
phone = ka-bar tang
photograph = par gyap
pour = lu
pray = mu-lam ghap
/ ghap su-chi
prostrate = cha-tse
put = sha
rain = char-pa tang
read = log
remember = dren
ride = ta shön
say = lap / sung (h)
see = tong
sell = tsong
send = tang / kur
show = te
sleep = nyi-ku
stay / sit = de / shu (h)
steal = ku
stop = kah
study= lop-jung che
take = len
take (food etc) = she (h)
.
...continue
69
talk = she / ke-cha she
teach = lap
think = sem
travel = ta-kor che
understand = ha-ko
wait = gu
walk = kom-ba gyap
wash = tru
work = le-ga che
write = dri
(p) = past
(h) = honorific
. .
...continue
70
Tibetan alphabet
71
by Sonam Tenzing
. .
...continue
72
Bibliography
v Learning Practical Tibetan - A.Bloomfield &
Y.Tsering, Snow Lion Publications, 1998
vTibetan Phrasebook - Sandup Tsering &
M.C.Goldstein, Lonely Planet Publications, 1996
vParlo Tibetano - M.Bianchetti & Chodup
Tzering Lama, Ed. A.Vallardi, 1999
v Tibetan Grammar - H.A.Jaschke, SRI Satguru
Publications, 1989
v Tibet Handbook - 1999
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to Paolo Lipari and Sheng Xiangdong
for their kind help.