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Ainu

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Ainu language spoken area

Spoken in 1800's Ainu language spoken area in 1800's are
  • South Sakhalin
  • Kuril islands
  • Hokkaido
  • North edge of Japan main island

The power struggle of Japan between Russia causes to move Ainu, now in sakhalin and kuril islands Ainu language is not spoken. The area is in Russian territory now.
In North edge of Japan main island,Aomori, it's said that Ainu language was spoken until 1950's, but now Japanese is spoken.

Now, In 1999,Ainu language is little spoken in Hokkaido.
But,in 10 years,the movement to revival Ainu language has occured language classes and speech contestes in many places.

Ainu language spoken area in historical archives

Spoken
                                    area(max)
  • Ainu might live with other people in North Sakhalin and Amur river area.(since 1300's)
    "Yuan Dynasty of China" ,founded by tatar, fight against several times the peoples who may be Ainu because the peoples invade area where "Yuan" controls.(AC 1264-1308)It may first archives about Ainu in china.
    The "Sin" age ,last imperial china,Ainu traded with china to go upstream Amur river. Now some people in Amur area have oral tradition which their ancestor is Ainu.
  • In Japan main island , Ainu might live in north of the island, Aomori,Iwate,Akita.(in 700's)
    In the Shoku-Nihon-gi ,that means Japanese archive part2, the contact Ezo between Japan was recorded. It may be first detailed archive about Ezo, that name means barbaric peoples around Japan.
  • The south limit of place name by Ainu language, it is said the Sirakawa Barrier and Nakoso Barrier(See black line on center Japan land). But the hypotheses exist that the place name by Ainu language left other many places.

Hello!

(Greeting)

English Sound Ainu
Come in please! Ahup yan!
(Formal greeting) Irankarapte!
Grandmother,I have not seen you for ages! Huchi he!
Aunt,I have not seen you for ages! Unarpe he!
How are you? Eiwanke ya?
I am fine. Kuiwanke wa!
SIt down please! Hetak rok yan!
(Formal)
Thank you
Iyayiraykere!
(Unformal)
Thank you
Hioy'oy!
Have a good night! Apunno sini yan!
(To remain man)
Good bye
Apunno oka yan!
(To leave man)
Good bye
Apunno paye yan!
See you again! Suy unukaran ro!


dic.
Ainu English
a sit(It is singular form. cf.;rok)
ahun come in house (It is singular form)
ahup come in house (It is plural form)
-an we
apunno peaceful
e yes!
e- you
he (It means question)
hetak come on
hioy'oy (It means thanks)
huci grandmother,old lady
irankarapte (It means polite greeting)
iwanke be in good spirits
iyayiraykere (It means polite thanks)
ku- I
oka are,exist,live(It is plural form)
paye go(It is plural form)
ro (It means temptation)
rok sit(It is plural form. cf.;a)
sini take rest
suy times
unarpe aunt,lady
unukar meet
unukaran < unukar-an
wa (the word soften them voice)
ya (It means question)
yan (It means order to persons ,or one person politely)

What's this?

English Sound Ainu
What's this? Tanpe hemanta an?
This is a bowl Tanpe anakne itanki ne
Well,what's that? Orano, toanpe hemanta an?
That's a chopsticks Toanpe anakne pasuy ne
Thank you Hioy'oy!
You see? Eeraman ya?
I see Keraman wa
Well,Which is a bowl? Orano, inanpe itanki ne ya?
It's this Tanpe ne
It's that Toanpe ne


What's that grass?

English Sound Ainu
What's that grass? Toan kina hemanta an?
That grass is a royal fern Toan kina anakne sorma ne


Who's that

English Sound Ainu
Who's that? Toankur hunna an?
That woman is my older sister Toankur anakne kusapo ne
Which is your son? Inankur epoho ne ya?
this Taankur_ne wa


dic.
Ainu English
an be?(It is used with question)
anakne (It present subject)
e- you
eraman understand
hemanta what
hioy'oy (It means thanks)
hunna who
itanki bowl
inankur who,which man
inanpe what,which thing
keraman < ku-eraman
kina grass
ku- I
ne be,become
orano well
pasuy chopsticks
po son
poho (one's) son
sapo older sister
sorma royal fern
taankur this man
tanpe this
toan that (goods)
toankur that man
toanpe that
wa (the word soften them voice)
ya (It means question)

May I..?, Must not

(Permission and Prohibition)


May I..?

English Sound Ainu
May I open the window? Puyar kumaka yakka pirka ya?
May I come in? Kahun yakka pirka ya?
May I eat candy? Topenpe ke yakka pirka ya?
May I drink?
Kuiku yakka pirka ya?
May I stop the car? Kukor aop kusinire yakka pirka ya?
May I smoke?
Tanpaku kuku yakka pirka ya?
May I take rest?
Kusini yakka pirka ya?
I finished my work. May I go home?
Kumonrayke okere korka
tane kuhosipi yakka pirka ya?
You may.
Yakun pirka
You may (stop the car) in case there
Toanta yakun pirka
You may (have) in case tea
Oca eku yakun pirka


Must not...

English Sound Ainu
Must not drink! Iteki ku!
Must not come in! Iteki ahun
Must not stop the car! Iteki aop sinire
Must not smoke Iteki tanpaku ku
Must not open the window because it is cold today Tanto mean kusu
iteki puyar maka
Must not drink because you drive the car Aop eo kusu
iteki iku


dic.
Ainu English
ahun come in house (It is singular form)
aop vehicle
e eat (foods)
e- you
hosipi go home
iteki (It means prohibition)
iku drink alcohol
kahun < ku-ahun
ke < ku-e
kor (goods) of (owner),have
korka but
ku drink (beverage)
ku- I
kusu in order to, because
maka open (window)
mean cold
monrayke work
o ride (vehicle)
oca tea (It is loan word from Japanese)
okere finish
pirka good
puyar window
sini take rest
sinire make (them) rest
tane already,no longer
tanpaku cigerette
tanpaku ku smoke
toanta there
topenpe candy
ya (It means question)
yakka pirka may
yakun in case,if

I want to.., If..

(Wish)


I want to..

English Sound Ainu
What do you want to eat? Hemanta ee rusuy ya?
I want to eat candy. Topenpe ke rusuy
What do you want to drink? Hemanta eku rusuy ya?
I want to drink tea. Oca kuku rusuy
I want to go home soon. x Tane kuhosipi rusuy
I want to rest because I am tired. Kusinki kusu kusini rusuy

If..

English Sound Ainu
I hope it would be fine tomorrow. Nisatta sirpirka yak pirkap!
One part of a poetry below
I would be wind.., I would be bird.. Rera ta kune,... cikap ta kune,...
If I could be, ki wa ne yakun
I could meet my lover in this day. Kuyupo tananto or ta kunukar oka!

dic.
Ainu English
e- you
e eat (foods)
ki do (something)
ku- I
ku drink (beverage)
kusu in order to, because
ke < ku-e
sini take rest
sirpirka fine
sinki tired
- ta - oka (It means hope which is unlikely to realize)
tananto or ta today (It is used in verse. In usual sentense,"tanto")
tane already,no longer
cikap bird
topenpe candy
nisatta tomorrow
nukar meet (person)
ne be,become
hemanta what
hosipi go home
ya (It means question)
yak (It means condition)
yakun in case,if
yupo lover (It is used in verse to man. To woman,"tures". In usual sentense,it means older brother)
rusuy want to
rera wind
wa and
pirka good
-p (It nominalizes verb which is completed by vowel. By consonaunt, "-pe")

My name is.., I come from..

(Self-introduction)


My name is..

English Sound Ainu
What is your name? Erehe mak aye?
My name is Yosida Kurehe anakne Yosida ne
How old are you? Epaha hempakpe an?
I am Twenty eight years old Kupaha anakne tupesan pa ikasma hotne pa ne

note Let's practice with your name and years

You see "Number"


I come from..

English Sound Ainu
Where do you come from? Hunak wa eek?
I come from Sapporo Sapporo wa kek
Do you come alone? Sinen ne eek?
I come with mother Hapo turano kek
Where do you go to tomorrow? Nisatta hunak un earpa?
I go to Biratori Biratori un karpa
Please go with me! Entura wa enkore!
Let's go! Uturano payean ro!
(To leave men)
Good bye!
Apunno paye yan!

note Let's practice with your places


dic. Number
Ainu English
a- somebody
-an we
anakne (It present subject)
apunno peaceful
arpa go(It is singular form. cf.;paye)
e- you
ek come
en- me
hempakpe how many
hunak where
karpa < ku-arpa
kek < ku-ek
kore give (them goods)
ku- I
mak how
ne be,become
ne (It means situation. cf.;sinen ne)
nisatta tomorrow
pa year
paha (one's) year
paye go(It is plural form. cf;arpa)
re name
rehe (one's) name
ro (It means temptation)
sinen one parson
sinen ne alone
tura bring (them) with
turano together with
un to (place)
uturano together
wa from (place)
wa and
ye tell

Water please!

English Sound Ainu
Water please! Wakka enkore
Chopsticks please! Pasuy enkore
Bowl please! Itanki enkore
Two bowls please! Tu itanki enkore
Here you are. x O


Please help me!

English Sound Ainu
Please put me up! x Enrewsire wa enkore
Please help me! Enkasuy wa enkore
Please take me with you! Entura wa enkore
Please wait for me! Entere wa enkore
Please show me! Ennukare wa enkore
Please tell me! Ennure wa enkore
Please say it again! Na arsuyne ennure wa enkore
Ok Pirka wa


dic.
Ainu English
arsuyne once
en- me
itanki bowl
kasuy help (them)
kore give (them goods)
na more
nukare show (them goods)
nure make (them) listen
o Here you are
pasuy chopsticks
pirka good
rewsire put (him) up (It is singular form)
tere wait (them)
tu two
tura bring (them) with
wa (the word soften them voice)
wakka water

Let's go!

English Sound Ainu
Let's go! Uturano payean ro!
Let's eat! Uturano ipean ro!
Let's talk about! Ukoisoitakan ro!
See you again! Suy unukaran ro!


Why don't you..?

English Sound Ainu
Why don't you drink water? Wakka eku hike makanak ne wa?
Why don't you wait a moment? Na atere hike makanak ne wa?

dic.
Ainu English
a- we (It is used with transitive verb. cf;-an)
-an we (It is used with intransitive verb. cf;a-)
e- you
ku drink (beverage)
hike which (person do)
makanak how
na more
ne be,become
paye go(It is plural form)
ro (It means proposal)
suy times
tere wait (them)
ukoisoitak talk with
unukar meet
uturano together
wa (the word soften them voice)
wakka water





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