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luxambourgish language

THE MOST BASIC WORDS

yes             oui
                                    no              nee, neen
                                    hello           moien
                                    goodbye         äddi
                                    welcome         wëlkomm
                                    thanks          merci
                                    please          wann ech gelift
                                    

COMMONLY USED ADVERBS (including some adjectives :-))

again           nammel, nees (In most cases, you use a verb
                                    with the prefix "widder-")
                                    already         ewell
                                    also            och
                                    always          ëmmer
                                    beautiful       schéin
                                    certainly       bestëmmt
                                    clearly         klor, kloer
                                    early           fréi
                                    everywhere      uechterall, iwwerall
                                    far             wäit
                                    frequently      heifeg*
                                    here            elei, hei
                                    late            spéit
                                    later           spéiter
                                    likely          anscheinend, nämmelech*
                                    loud            laut*
                                    maybe           vläicht, vläit
                                    much            vill
                                    naturally       natierlech
                                    near            bei, bäi
                                    neatly          uerdentlech*
                                    never           kees, nimools
                                    now             lo, elo
                                    nowhere         néierens, néierewou
                                    often           dacks
                                    only            nëmmen
                                    possibly        méiglech, méigelech
                                    rarely          seelen
                                    seldom          seelen
                                    sometimes       manchmol*
                                    soon            geschwënn
                                    still           nach (not yet = nach net)
                                    there           do
                                    today           héijen
                                    tomorrow        mar, muer
                                    unlikely        onwourschéinlech*
                                    usually         gewinnlech*
                                    very            uerg
                                    well            gutt
                                    wrong           falsch, verkéiert
                                    yesterday       gëscht, gëschter
                                    

COMMONLY USED ADJECTIVES

advanced        fortgeschritt*
                                    alive           liewig, vif, wif
                                    antique         aalt*
                                    available       disponibel*
                                    awful           fierchterlech, freeschlech
                                    bad             schlecht, iwwel
                                    beautiful       schéin
                                    big             grouss
                                    black           schwaarz
                                    blue            blo
                                    boring          verdross*
                                    bright          hell
                                    brown           brong
                                    cheap           bëlleg
                                    clean           propper*
                                    clear           klor
                                    closed          zou
                                    cold            kal
                                    common          gemeinsam (like having something in common)
                                    correct         wouer
                                    cosy            molleg, kammoud
                                    dark            donkel, däischter
                                    defect          kapott (to break s.th. = eppes briechen)
                                    dense           dicht*
                                    developed       entwéckelt
                                    different       anescht (different from = anders als), verschidden (two things are different)
                                    difficult       kriddeleg
                                    dirty           schmotzeg
                                    dissatisfied    onzefridde
                                    dry             dréchen
                                    dumb            domm (stupid), stomm (speechless)
                                    easy            liicht
                                    educative       léierräich
                                    expected        ofgewaart*
                                    expensive       deier
                                    experienced     erfahren*
                                    fantastic       phantastesch*
                                    far             wäit
                                    fast            huerteg
                                    fat             schmiereg (with lots of fat), déck (for persons)
                                    filled          satt*
                                    flying          fléiend (often expressed by the noun prefix "Flock-")*
                                    funny           witzeg
                                    general         allgemeng
                                    gentle          siddeleg, duuss
                                    good            gutt
                                    gray            gro
                                    green           gréng
                                    happy           glécklech
                                    

hard (!=easy) haart
hard (!=soft) haart, fest (not liquid or so)

healthy         gesond
                                    heavy           schwéier
                                    high            héi, héich
                                    hollow          huel
                                    horrific        greilech*
                                    ill             krank
                                    improved        verbessert
                                    incorrect       falsch, verkéiert
                                    intelligent     gescheit
                                    interesting     interessant*
                                    invited         agelueden*
                                    known           bekannt
                                    large           grouss
                                    

light (!=dark) hell
light (!=heavy) liicht

liquid          flësseg*
                                    little          kleng (small), wéineg (not much)
                                    long            laang
                                    loud            laut*
                                    low             niddereg
                                    many            vill
                                    moving          (use the appropriate form of the verb to move = "(sich) réieren")*
                                    much            vill
                                    narrow          schmuel
                                    near            nootst
                                    new             nei
                                    next            nächsten
                                    nice            aartelech
                                    old             aalt
                                    open            offen, op, oppen, affen
                                    orange          orange*
                                    other           aner (f), aneren (m), anert (n)
                                    pink            rosa
                                    poor            aarm
                                    previous        virugoend*
                                    primitive       primitiv*
                                    purple          vioulett, lila*
                                    quick           huerteg
                                    red             rout
                                    rich            räich
                                    round           ronn
                                    same            selwecht
                                    satisfied       zefridden
                                    short           kuerz
                                    sick            krank (not like being sick of s.th.)
                                    similar         ähnlech
                                    simple          einfach
                                    slow            gemälleg, lues
                                    soft            weech, duuss
                                    strange         gelungen
                                    strong          kräfteg
                                    terrible        fierchterlech*
                                    thick           déck
                                    thin            gouereg
                                    warm            waarm
                                    weak            mackeg
                                    wet             naass
                                    white           wäiss
                                    wide            breet
                                    wonderful       wonnerbar
                                    yellow          giel
                                    young           jong, jonk
                                    

COMMONLY USED VERBS (p.p. = past participle)

to accept       zousoën (like an agreement), averstan sinn (to agree
                                    with s.th.)
                                    to add          bäisetzen (p.p. bäigesat)
                                    to agree        averstan sinn
                                    to allow        erlaben
                                    to answer       äntweren (intransitive), beäntweren (transitive)
                                    to appear       opkommen
                                    to ask          froen
                                    to attack       ugräifen (p.p. ugegraff)
                                    to be able to   kënnen
                                    to begin        ufänken (p.p. ugefaang)
                                    to believe      gleewen (to believe in s.th. = un eppes gleewen)
                                    to bring        bréngen (p.p. bruecht)
                                    to build        bauen
                                    to burn         brennen (p.p. gebrannt)
                                    to buy          kafen (du keefs, hien keeft, p.p. kaaft)
                                    to calculate    rechnen (intransitive), berechnen (transitive)
                                    to catch        fänken
                                    to call         ruffen (not by telephone), nennen (give a name)
                                    to phone        opruffen
                                    to carry        droen
                                    to change       änneren (make it different), wiesselen (exchange s.th.), ofwiesselen (frequent variation), verwandelen (transform)
                                    to choose       wielen, erauswielen (someone)
                                    to close        zoumaachen (lock = zouspären)
                                    to come         kommen (arrive = ukommen)
                                    to complain     sech bekloen (in general intransitive), sech beschwéieren (complain about someone)
                                    to continue     weiderfueren, virufueren (you often use a verb with the prefix "viru-" instead, like "to go on" = "virugoen")
                                    to cook         kachen
                                    to count        zielen
                                    to create       schafen
                                    to cry          reenen
                                    to decide       entscheeden
                                    to defend       verdeedegen
                                    to discover     entdecken
                                    to dance        danzen
                                    to die          stierwen (du stiirfs, hien stiirft, p.p. gestuerwen)
                                    to discuss      bespriechen
                                    to do           dinn
                                    to draw         zeechnen
                                    to drink        drénken
                                    to drive        fueren
                                    to eat          iessen
                                    to erase        ewechmaachen
                                    to enter        agoen
                                    to exist        bestoen
                                    to expect       ofwaarden
                                    to experience   erfahren (also to hear s.one tell you s.th.), eng Erfahrong machen*
                                    to explain      erklären, auserneeleeën
                                    to fall         falen
                                    to feel         richen (p.p. geroch)
                                    to fear         scheien (transitive), fäerten (intransitive, p.p. gefaart)
                                    to fight        schloen (du schléis, hien schléit)
                                    to find         fannen
                                    to finish       erleedegen
                                    to fly          fléien (du flitts, hien flitt)
                                    to follow       nogoen (transitive)
                                    to forget       vergiessen (du vergëss, hien vergësst)
                                    to get (s.th.)  kréien (du kriss, hien kritt)
                                    to give         ginn (also used as the auxiliary for the passive voice), schenken (as a gift, ditransitive), verschenken (dito,
                                    transitive)
                                    to go           goen
                                    to grow         wuessen (du wiiss, hien wiisst, p.p. gewuess) (to become bigger), ginn (like becoming old)
                                    to hate         haassen
                                    to have         hunn (p.p. gehat, conditional hätt)
                                    to have to      mussen, missen (conditional misst)
                                    to heal         heelen
                                    to hear         héieren
                                    to heat         wiermen
                                    to help         hëllefen (p.p. gehollef)
                                    to hit          schloen, klappen, tappen (like kicking someone)
                                    to hope         hoffen
                                    to hurt         verwonnen
                                    to invite       alueden*
                                    to join         sech enger Grupp aschliissen (to join a group), sech zesummenschliissen (like building s.th. together)*
                                    to keep         behalen
                                    to kill         ëmäerbelen
                                    to know         wëssen (du weess, hien wësst, p.p. gewosst) (having a certain knowledge), kennen (to be familiar with s.th.,
                                    to know s.one)
                                    to land         landen
                                    to laugh        laachen
                                    to learn        léieren
                                    to leave/part   verloossen*
                                    to lie          leien (du läis, hien läit) (to be lying somewhere), léien (to tell a lie, intransitive), beléeien (dito, but
                                    lying to someone)
                                    to like         gäer hunn*
                                    to listen       lauschteren
                                    to live         liewen, wunnen (currently living in a certain city, French "habiter")
                                    to lose         verléieren (p.p. verluer)
                                    to look         kucken (intransitive), ukucken (transitive), nokucken (to verify s.th.)
                                    to love         léiwen, léif hunn*
                                    to make         machen (du méchs, hien mécht)
                                    to meet         begéinen (transitive or reflexive)
                                    to move         sech réieren (opposite of standing still), virgoen (go on), bewegen (transitive)*
                                    to need         brauchen
                                    to offer        ubidden (p.p. ugebueden)
                                    to open         opmaachen, opdoen (the mouth), opspären (with a key)
                                    to paint        usträichen (p.p. ugestrach) (painting a wall with one color)
                                    to pay          zuelen (money for a product), bezuelen (the product itself)
                                    to pay attent.  uechtdinn, uechtginn
                                    to play         spillen
                                    to prepare      virbereeden
                                    to prove        beweisen (p.p. bewisen)
                                    to put          setzen (p.p. gesat) (make it sit), stellen (make it stand), leeën (make it lie)
                                    it rains        et reent*
                                    to receive      kréien (du kriss, hien kritt)
                                    to remember     sech erënneren (the transitive form uses a preposition)
                                    to remove       ofdunn, ofdoen
                                    to repeat       widderhuelen
                                    to rule         regéieren (to govern)
                                    to run          lafen, rennen (p.p. gerannt)
                                    to say          soen (ech son, du sees, hien seet, p.p. gesot)
                                    to search       sichen
                                    to see          gesinn (du gesäis, hien gesäit)
                                    to send         schécken
                                    to sing         sangen (du séngs, hien séngt, p.p. gesongen)
                                    to sit          sëtzen (imp. souz) (to be aseat), sech setzen (to sit down)
                                    to show         weisen
                                    to smile        schmunzelen, schmunzen, schmonzen
                                    to sleep        schlofen (du schléifs, hien schléift)
                                    it snows        et schnéit*
                                    to speak        schwätzen (p.p. geschwat)
                                    to spend (t/m)  ausginn
                                    to stand        stoen (du stees, hien steet, p.p. gestan) (to be standing), sech hiewen (to stand up), erdroen (to stand/bear
                                    s.th.)
                                    to steal        stielen (du stiels, p.p. gestuel)
                                    to stop         unhalen (to come to a halt), stoppen (when you were going fast)
                                    to study        stodéieren
                                    to take         huelen (du hëls, hien hëlt)
                                    to take off     ewechhuelen (transitive), ausdinn (take off one's clothes), ausdoen (dito)
                                    to talk         schwätzen, rieden (hold a speech)
                                    to taste        schmaachen*
                                    to teach        bäibréngen (ditransitive)
                                    to tell         soen (ech son, du sees, hien seet, p.p. gesot)
                                    to think        denken (think), mengen (having a certain opinion)
                                    to throw        puchen, geheien (p.p. gehäit)
                                    to touch        beréieren
                                    to translate    iwwersetzen
                                    to travel       reesen
                                    to try          probéieren, ausprobéieren (try out)
                                    to understand   verstoen (verstees, versteet, p.p. verstan)
                                    to visit        besichen
                                    to vote         stëmmen
                                    to wait         waarden
                                    to wake up      erwächen
                                    to walk         goen
                                    to want         wëllen (p.p. gewollt)
                                    to watch        ukucken, luussen (observe someone)
                                    to win          wannen (p.p. gewonn OR gewonnen)
                                    to wish         wënschen
                                    to work         schaffen
                                    to write        schreiwen (p.p. geschriwwen)
                                    

NOUNS: BODY

arm             Aarm (m, plural Ärem)
                                    back            Réck (m)
                                    body            Kierper (m)
                                    finger          Fanger (m)
                                    foot            Fouss (m, plural Féiss)
                                    hand            Hand (f, plural Hänn)
                                    head            Kopp (m, plural Käpp)
                                    leg             Been (n)
                                    

NOUNS: CITY

appartment      Wunneng (f)
                                    building        Bau (m), Gebai (n)
                                    city            Stad (f, plural Stied)
                                    highway         Autobunn (f)
                                    hospital        Spidol (n), Spedol (n)
                                    location        Uert (m)
                                    office          Büro (n)*
                                    street          Strooss (f), Gaass (f, small street)
                                    village         Duerf (n, plural Dierfer)
                                    town            Uert (m)
                                    

NOUNS: COMMERCE

money           Geld (n)
                                    price           Präiss (m)
                                    product         Produkt (n)*
                                    shop            Geschäft (n, plural Geschäfter), Buttek (m)
                                    

NOUNS: COUNTRY

country         pays (m)
                                    state           Stat (m)
                                    flag            Fändel (m), Fuendel (m)
                                    government      Regierung (f)
                                    king            Kinnek (m)
                                    president       Präsidënt (m), Präsidëntin (f)*
                                    prince          Prënz (m)
                                    princess        Prënzessin (f)*
                                    queen           Kinnigin (f)
                                    

NOUNS: EDUCATION

lesson          Lektioun (f)
                                    school          Schoul (f)
                                    subject         Fach (m, plural Fächer)
                                    teacher         Léierer (m), Léierin (f)
                                    university      Universitéit (f)*
                                    

NOUNS: FOOD AND DRINKS

beef            Rëndfleesch (n)
                                    beer            Béier (m)
                                    bread           Brout (n)
                                    chicken         Dickelchen (n)
                                    food            Kascht (m), Ernährong (f, like healthy food)
                                    fish            Fësch (m)
                                    fruit           Fruucht (f, can be counted), Uebst (n, uncounted)
                                    meat            Fleesch (n)
                                    milk            Mëllech (f)
                                    pork            Schwéngefleesch (n)
                                    vegetables      Geméis (n, singular)
                                    water           Waasser (n)
                                    wine            Wäin (m)
                                    

NOUNS: HOUSE

bed             Bett (n, plural Better)
                                    chair           Stull (m, plural Still)
                                    door            Dir (f)
                                    floor           Buedem (m, plural Biedem)
                                    house           Haus (n, plural Haiser)
                                    lamp            Luucht (f)
                                    roof            Daach (m, plural Diech)
                                    room            Kummer (f)
                                    table           Dësch (m)
                                    window          Fënster (f)
                                    

NOUNS: LANGUAGE

book            Buch (n)
                                    character       Zeechen (n)
                                    dictionary      Dictionnaire (m)
                                    grammar         Grammatik (f)*
                                    letter          Bréif (f)
                                    language        Sprooch (f)
                                    sentence        Saz (m, plural Sätz)
                                    story           Geschicht (f)
                                    word            Wuert (n, plural Wierder)
                                    

NOUNS: NATURE

bird            Villchen (m, plural Villercher)
                                    canal           Kanal (m)*
                                    cat             Kaz (f)
                                    cow             Kou (f, plural Kéi), Uess (m, used to emphasize the sex), Ochs (dito)
                                    cloud           Wollek (f, plural Wolleken)
                                    beach           Strand (m)*
                                    dog             Hond (m, plural Honn OR Hënn)
                                    fish            Fësch (m)
                                    flower          Blumm (f)
                                    forest          Wald (m), Bësch (m, wood)
                                    garden          Gaart (m, plural Gäert)
                                    horse           Päerd (n)
                                    moon            Mound (m)
                                    park            Park (m)*
                                    planet          Planet (m)*
                                    plant           Planz (f)
                                    rain            Reen (m)
                                    river           Floos (m, plural Flëss)
                                    sea             Mier (n)
                                    snow            Schnee (m)*
                                    space           Weltraum (m)*
                                    sun             Sonn (f)
                                    star            Stär (m)
                                    tree            Bam (m, plural Beem)
                                    water           Waasser (n)
                                    weather         Wieder (n)
                                    world           Welt (f)
                                    

NOUNS: PEOPLE

boss            Meeschter (m, "master"), Meeschtesch (f, dito), Chef (m), Chefin (f)*
                                    boy             Jong (m)
                                    boyfriend       Frënd (m, plural Frënn)*
                                    brother         Brudder (m, plural Bridder)
                                    child           Kand (n, plural Kanner)
                                    daughter        Duechter (f, plural Diechter)
                                    father          Papp (m)
                                    girl            Meedchen (n, plural Medercher)
                                    girlfriend      Frëndin (f, plural Frëndinnen)*
                                    grandfather     Grousspapp (m), Bopa (m, colloquial)
                                    grandmother     Groussmamm (f), Boma (f, colloquial)
                                    husband         Mann (m, plural Männer)
                                    man             Mann (m, plural Männer)
                                    mother          Mamm (f)
                                    person          Persoun (f)*
                                    people          Leit (plural)
                                    sister          Schwëster (f), Sëschter (f)
                                    son             Jong (m)
                                    woman           Fra (f, plural Fraen)
                                    wife            Fra (f, plural Fraen)
                                    

NOUNS: SCIENCE

chemistry       Chemie (f)*
                                    height          Héicht (f)
                                    length          Längt (f)
                                    physics         Physik (f)*
                                    science         Wëssenschaft (f)
                                    size            Gréisst (f)
                                    

NOUNS: TIME

clock           Auer (f, "[at] 5 o'clock" = "[om] 5 Auer")
                                    day             Dag (m, plural Deeg)
                                    hour            Stonn (f)
                                    future          Zoukonft (f)
                                    minute          Minutt (f)
                                    past            Vergaangenheet (f)
                                    present         Gegenwart (f)*
                                    second          Sekonn (f)
                                    time            Zäit (f)
                                    week            Woch (f)
                                    year            Jor (n)
                                    

NOUNS: TRANSPORT

airplane        Fliger (m)
                                    bike            vélo (m), bicyclette (f)
                                    boat (small)    Schëff (n, plural Schëffer)*
                                    bus             Bus (m)
                                    car             Won (m, plural Ween)
                                    subway          U-Bunn (f), Metro (f)*
                                    ship (large)    Schëff (n, plural Schëffer)
                                    train           Zuch (m, plural Zich)
                                    

ROLF'S SPECIAL ADD-ON

DAYS OF THE WEEK

Monday          Méindeg (m), méindes (on Mondays)
                                    Tuesday         Dënschdeg (m), dënschdes (on Tuesdays)
                                    Wednesday       Mëttwoch (m), mëttwochs (on Wednesdays)
                                    Friday          Freideg (m), freides (on Fridays)
                                    Saturday        Samschdeg (m), samschdes (on Saturdays)
                                    Sunday          Sonndeg (m), sonndes (on Mondays)
                                    

MONTHS

January         Januar (m), Haartmount (m)
                                    February        Februar (m), Febuar (m)
                                    March           Mäerz (m)
                                    April           Abrëll (m)
                                    May             Mee (m)
                                    June            Juni (m), Rousemount (m), Broochmount (m)
                                    July            Juli (m), Heemount (m)
                                    August          August (m)
                                    September       September (m), Hierschtmount (m)
                                    October         Oktouber (m), Wäimount (m)
                                    November        November (m), Wantermount (m), Allerhellgemount (m)
                                    December        Dezember (m)
                                    

NUMBERS

0               null (also used as a feminine noun)
                                    1               een (cardinal)
                                    2               zwee (cardinal), zwou (f), zwéin (m), zweemol (twice), zweet[en] (2nd)
                                    3               dräi, drëtt[en] (3rd)
                                    4               véier, véiert[en] (4th)
                                    5               fënnef
                                    6               sechs
                                    7               siwen
                                    8               aacht
                                    9               néng
                                    10              zéng
                                    11              eelef
                                    12              zwielef
                                    13              dräizéng
                                    14              véierzéng
                                    15              fofzéng
                                    16              siechzéng
                                    17              siwenzéng
                                    18              uechtzéng
                                    19              néngzéng
                                    20              zwanzeg
                                    21              eenenzwanzeg
                                    22              zweeënzwanzeg
                                    23              dräienzwanzeg
                                    30              drësseg
                                    40              véerzeg
                                    50              fofzeg
                                    60              sechzeg
                                    70              siwenzeg
                                    80              achtzeg, uechtzeg
                                    90              néngzeg
                                    100             honnert
                                    101             honnerteen
                                    102             honnertzwee
                                    1000            dausend
                                    10,000          zéngdausend
                                    100,000         honnertdausend
                                    

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

1 sg            ech
                                    2 sg            du
                                    3 sg m          hien
                                    3 sg f          se, si
                                    3 sg n          et
                                    1 pl            mir
                                    2 pl            dir (also used as polite 2nd person singular)
                                    3 pl            si
                                    

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

1 sg            méng (f OR plural), mäin[t] (m OR n)
                                    2 sg            deng (f, pl), däi[n] (m, n)
                                    3 sg m/n        säin
                                    3 sg f          hiert
                                    1 pl            eis (f, pl), eisen (m, n)
                                    2 pl            ären
                                    3 pl            hir, hiren
                                    

INTEROGATIVE PRONOUNS
how? wéi?
what?, which? wat?

when?           wéini?
                                    where?          wou? (location), wouhin? (direction)
                                    who?            wien?, ween?
                                    why?            woufir?, wuerfir?
                                    

CONJUNCTIONS AND STUFF

and             a
                                    or              oder, odder
                                    but             ma, mä, awer, ower, iewer
                                    that            datt, dass (German "dass" or "daß")
                                    not             net
                                    

CONJUGATION OF THE MAJOR AUXILIARIES

to be           sinn (infinitive)
                                    ech sinn, du bass, hien ass (present tense singular)
                                    mir sinn, dir sidd, si sinn (present tense plural)
                                    ech si gewiescht (I have been)
                                    sief, bass de (both imperative sg), sieft, sidd (both imperative pl)
                                    to have         hunn (infinitive)
                                    ech hunn, du hues, hien huet (present tense singular)
                                    mir hunn, dir hutt, si hunn (present tense plural)
                                    ech hu gehat (I have been)
                                    hief (imperative sg), hieft (imperative pl)
                                    passive aux.    ginn (infinitive)
                                    ech ginn, du gëss, hien gëtt (present tense singular)
                                                mir ginn, dir gitt, si ginn (present tense plural)
                                                    ech hu ginn (I have given)
                                                    gëff (imperative sg), gitt (imperative pl)
                                    

AND A LITTLE MORE

something       eppens
                                    somewhere       éierewou, enzwousch
                                    somehow         éierens
                                    anything        iergend eppes
                                    anywhere        iergendwou, iergandzwousch
                                    anyone          iergendeen
                                    any X           iergendeng X
                                    nothing         näischt
                                    nowhere         néierens, néierewou
                                    no one          nëmmescht
                                    no X            keng X (f), keent X (m, n)
                                    some/a few      puer, e puer
                                    several         etlech, en etlech
                                    not at all      guer net, iwwerhaapt net
                                    only X          eenzeg X (f), eenzegen X (m), eenzegt X (n)
                                    

Luxembourgish articles

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

The Luxembourgish articles are a little different from their German counterparts, as the following tables show.
Please not that an N at the end only occurs when preceding D, H, N, T, Z, a vowel or a punctuation mark.
d is pronounced like a T, even when preceding a vowel.

Unstressed Definite Articles (cf. multilingual articles (definite))

 

(m)

(f)

(n)

Pl.

Nom.

de(n)

d'

d'

d'

Dat.

dem

der

dem

de(n)

Akk.

de(n)

d'

d'

d'

Stressed Definite Articles (cf. multilingual articles (definite))

 

(m)

(f)

(n)

Pl.

Nom.

dee(n)

déi

daat

déi

Dat.

deem

där

deem

dee(n)

Akk.

dee(n)

déi

daat

déi

Indefinite Articles (cf. multilingual articles (indefinite))

 

(m)

(f)

(n)

Nom.

e(n)

eng

e(n)

Dat.

engem

enger

engem

Akk.

e(n)

eng

e(n)

I'm afraid I can't give a guarantee for the correctness of these lists...

 

Luxembourgish genitive

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

The genitive case of German has disappeared in Luxembourgish, except for the possessive pronouns.

When a possessive pronun is not appropriate, you use either "vun" + dative case or posessor + possessive pronoun.
Examples: d'Faarf vum Won (the color of the car), em Jean séng Mamm (John's mother)

 

Luxembourgish interrogative pronouns

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

English

German

Luxembourgish

when?

wann?

wéini?

why?

warum?

woufir/wuerfir/firwat?

what?

was?

wat?

who?

wer?

wien?

how?

wie?

wéi?

how much/many?

wie viel(e)?

wivill?

for what?

wofür?

woufir?

from where?

woher?

vu wou?

(to) where?

wohin?

wouhin?

with what?

womit?

woumat?

of what?

wovon?

wouvun?

Luxembourgish names

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

Names of persons are always given with a definite article.
The nominative articles are den or de for masculine and d' for feminine nouns.
So you say de Jean (John), d'Marie (Mary), den Här Rodange (Mr Rodange) and d'Madame Strasser (Ms Strasser).

Luxembourgish numerals

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

>> languages >> Luxembourgish >> Luxembourgish grammar

Cardinal numbers

Numbers are not declined in Luxembourgish, except for 1 and 2.
The numbers from 10 to 19 are similar to English.
In opposite to many other languages, numbers between 21 and 99 always follow the pattern second digit - an - first digit, as you can see in the following list.

0 null, 1 eent, 2 zwee, 3 dräi, 4 véier
5 fënnef, 6 sechs, 7 siwen, 8 aacht, 9 néng
10 zéng, 11 elef, 12 zwielef, 13 dräizéng, 14 véierzéng
15 fofzéng, 16 siechzéng, 17 siwwenzéng, 18 uechtzéng, 19 nonzéng
20 zwanzeg, 21 eenanzwanzeg, 22 zweeanzwanzeg, 23 dräianzwanzeg, 24 véieranzwanzeg
25 fënnefanzwanzeg, 26 sechsanzwanzeg, 27 siwenanzwanzeg, 28 aachtanzwanzeg, 29 nénganzwanzeg
30 drësseg, 31 eenandrësseg, 32 zweeandrësseg, 33 dräiandrësseg, ...
40 véierzeg, 50 fofzeg, 60 sechzeg, 70 siwwenzeg, 80 achtzeg, 90 nonzeg
100 honnert, 101 honnerteent, 102 honnertzwee,
200 zweehonnert, 300 dräihonnert, 748 siwenhonnertachtanvéierzeg
1000 (een)dausend, 2000 zweedausend, 10.000 zéngdausend, 100.000 honnertdausend
1.000.000 eng Millioun, 2.000.000 zwou Milliounen
1.000.000.000 (10^9) eng Milliard, 2.000.000.000 zwou Milliarden
1.000.000.000.000 (10^12) eng Billion, 1.000.000.000.000.000 (10^15) eng Billiard
604.720.051 sechshonnertvéier Milliounen siwenhonnertzwanzegdausendeenanfofzeg

The declension of 2 is as follows:
masculine zwéin, feminine zwou, neuter zwee.


The decimal point is a comma in Luxembourgish.
Long numbers are given in groups of three digits that are separated either by points or by spaces.
Example: 12.345,67 or 12 345,67

Years between 1100 and 1999 are said as hundreds instead of thousands:
1984 nonzénghonnertvéieranachtzeg

Ordinal numbers

Just like in English, ordinal numbers can be quite irregular for small numbers. The regular ending is te under 20 and ste over 19.
The declension distinguishes between masculine and neuter singular on one hand and plural and feminine singular on the other.
They are written by simply adding a point behind the number.

1. (m/n) den éischten, (f/pl) dat/déi éischt, 2. den zweeten, dat/déi zweet, 3. den drëtten, dat/déi drëtt, 4. de véierten, dat/déi véiert
5. dat fënneft, 6. dat sechst, 7. dat siewent, 8. dat aacht, 9. dat néngt
10. dat zéngt, 11. dat eleft, 12. dat zwieleft, 13. dat dräizéngt, ...
20. dat zwanzegt, 73. dat dräiansiwwenzegt
100. den honnertsen, dat/déi honnertst, 1000. den dausendsen, dat/déi dausendst
5041. dat fënnefdausendeenanvéierzegt

Fractions

Fractions are not identical with ordinal numbers, they receive the ending tel and are declined like neuter nouns. They do not change in plural.

1/2 en hallef, 1/3 en drëttel, 1/4 e véirel
1/5 e fënneftel, 1/6 en sechstel, 1/7 en siwentel, 1/8 en aachtel, 1/9 en néngtel
1/10 en zéngtel, 1/11 en eleftel, 1/12 en zwieleftel, 1/13 en dräizéngtel, ...
1/20 en zwanzegtel, 1/73 en dräiansiwwenzegtel
1/100 en honnertstel, 1/1000 en dausendstel
3/4 dräi véirel, 52/89 zweeanfofzeg nénganachtzegtel

 

Luxembourgish prepositions

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

Most prepositions are like in German.

Note that German "in" (similar to English "in") is an in Luxembourgish.
Examples: a Spuenien (in Spain), an Holland (in the Netherlands), an der Belsch (in Belgium)

Another major difference is the preposition used for towns. In German, you say "in Berlin" (English "in Berlin") and "aus Paris" (English "from Paris").
In Luxembourgish, this is zu Berlin and vun Paräis respectively.
There is one exception, however. Something in Luxembourg City is an der Stad ("in the city").

Expressing that someone comes from a specific country depends on the article. If the country name is given without an article, you use aus like in German: aus Frankräich/Däitschland (from France/Germany). But if the country name is given with a definite article, you use vun with the article in dative case: vun der Belsch/Schwäiz (from Belgium/Switzerland).

 

Luxembourgish pronouns

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

The polite form is not the 3rd person plural as in German, but the 2nd person plural. It is capitalized like in German.
The words in brackets give the unstressed pronouns. Possessive pronouns are in another table. Their declension is a little more complicated than in German.

Personal pronouns

 

nom.

dat.

acc.

reflexive

1 sg

ech

mir [mer]

mech

mech

2 sg

du [de]

dir [der]

dech

dech

3 sg (m)

hien [en]

him [em]

en

sech

3 sg (f)

si [se]

hir

si [se]?

sech

3 sg (f) *(See below)

hatt [et]

him [em]

hatt [et]

sech

3 sg (n)

et ['t]

him [em]

et ['t]

sech

1 pl

mir [mer]

ons

ons

ons

2 pl

dir [der]

iech

iech

iech

3 pl

si

hinnen

si

sech

Possessive pronouns

 

(m)

(f)

(n)

pl.

1 sg

mäi(n)

méng

mäi(n)

méng

2 sg

däi(n)

déng

däi(n)

déng

3 sg (m)

säi(n)

séng

säi(n)

séng

3 sg (f)

hire

hir

hiirt

hir

3 sg (n)

säi(n)

séng

säi(n)

séng

1 pl

eise(n)

eis

eist

eis

2 pl

äre(n)

är

äert

är

3 pl

hire

hir

hiirt

hir

And don't forget the N deletion rule...

Luxembourgish verbs

Presented by the UniLang Language Community

Let's start with the most common auxiliaries:

sinn (to be)

present

past

perfect

conjunctive

ech sinn/si

ech war

ech si gewiescht

ech wieren

du bass

du waars

du bass gewiescht

du wiers

hien ass

hien war

hien ass gewiescht

hien wiert

mir sinn/si

mir waren

mir si gewiescht

mir wieren

dir sidd

dir waart

dir sidd gewiescht

dir wiert

si sinn/si

si waren

si si gewiescht

si wieren

hunn (to have)

present

past

perfect

conjunctive

ech hunn/hu

ech hat

ech hu gehat

ech hätten

du hues

du has

du hues gehat

du hätts

hien huet

hien hat

hien huet gehat

hien hätt

mir hunn/hu

mir haten

mir hu gehat

mir hätten

dir hutt

dir hat

dir hutt gehat

dir hätt

si hunn/hu

si haten

si hu gehat

si hätten

Most words form the conditional with the conjunctive of "doen" (to do) followed by the infinitive of the main verb.
Examples: ech dinn doen (I would do), hie déit doen (he would do)

If you know German, you can easily translate verbs with prefixes into Luxembourgish using the following rules:
ab -> of, an -> u(n), auf -> op, be -> be, bei -> bäi,
durch -> duerch, ein -> a?, er -> er, ge -> ge, heraus -> eraus,
mit -> mat, nach -> no, nieder -> néier, ver -> ver, vor -> vir,
über -> iwwer, zu -> zou, zusammen -> zesamme(n)

And now for some irregular verbs (with their German translations):
behalen (behalten): ech behalen, du behäls, hie behät, mir behalen, dir behaalt, si behalen; ech hu behal?
bidden (bieten): ech hu gebueden
bitzen (nähen): ech hu gebutt
briechen (brechen): ech hu gebrach
bréngen (bringen): ech hu bruecht
brennen (brennen): ech hu gebrannt
doen (tun): ech dinn, du dees, hien deet, mir dinn, dir ditt, si dinn; ech hu gedoen?
dreiwen (treiben): ech hu gedriwwen
fäerten (fürchten): ech hu gefaart
falen (fallen): ech falen, du fäls, hie fält, mir falen, dir faalt, si falen; ech si gefal?
féieren (führen): ech hu gefouert (but: ugeféiert)
fannen (finden): ech fannen, du fënns, hie fënnt, mir fannen, dir fannt, si fannen; ech hu gefun?
gëllen (gelten): ech gëllen, du gëlls, hie gëllt; ech hu gegollt
geschéien (geschehen): et ass geschitt
ginn (geben/werden): ech ginn, du gëss, hie gëtt, mir ginn, dir gitt, si ginn; ech hu gegeben? (past tense: ech gouf?)
goen (gehen): ech ginn, du gees, hie geet, mir ginn, dir gitt, si ginn; ech si gegangen? (imperative: géi!)
gräifen (greifen): ech hu gegraff
hëllefen (helfen): ech hu gehollef
kafen (kaufen): ech kafen, du keefs, hie keeft; ech hu kaaft
maachen (machen): ech hu gemaacht
netzen (netzen): ech hu genat
räissen (reißen): ech hu gerass
ruffen (rufen): ech ruffen, du riffs, hie rifft; ech hu geruffen?
schäissen (scheißen): ech hu geschass
schloen (schlagen): ech schloen, du schléis, hie schléit; ech hu geschloen?
setzen (setzen): ech hu gesat
soen (sagen): ech hu gesot
späizen (spucken): ech hu gespaut
stellen (stellen): ech hu gestallt
stoen (stehen): ech stinn, du stees, hie steet, mir stinn, dir stitt, si stinn; ech si gestan (conjunctive: sténg/stéing)
verschwannen (verschwinden): ech si verschwonn/verschwonnen
wëllen (wollen): ech wëll, du wëlls, hie wëllt; ech hu gewollt
zéien (ziehen): ech hu gezunn

 



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